Managing Common Hospital Diagnoses
The importance of the management of common hospital diagnoses, the prevention and management of common complications, and the appropriate use of diagnostic testing is undeniable. These four categories are briefly discussed below, to help patients in their healthcare needs. Patients will be able to find important information, as well as links to the resources that contain additional data on the subject.
Sepsis and Septic Shock
Evidence suggests that it is very important that sepsis and septic shock are immediately managed in order to improve outcome in patients. For techniques used and more information, visit Critical Care Medicine.
Chest Pain and Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)
There is a highly comprehensive article on the subject, which contains algorithms for diagnoses of chest pain and ACS. These algorithms are in the form of flowcharts, which makes is easy to follow.
Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP)
Healthcare associated pneumonia (HCAP) guidelines are to be used when treating patients from nursing homes or other long-term facilities. For certain pathogens, however, CAP guidelines are to be used. In order to diagnose CAP, certain symptoms are to be considered: cough, fever, production of sputum, and chest pain. These should be followed by imaging of the lung and a physical examinations. Most common treatment is the use of antibiotics with dosage based on doctor recommendation. A very detailed analysis can be found at Clinical Infectious Diseases.
Another comprehensive resource for those needing more information on the prevention of community-acquired pneumonia can be found at Annals of Emergency Medicine.
Cardiovascular disease and circulation
It is important to use specific guidelines with patients who suffer from any cardiovascular disease or unstable angina (chest pain). The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Taskforce on Practice Guidelines in conjunction with the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons developed a set of guidelines to be followed closely in patients with cardiovascular concerns. You can find the full document here, which iterates the treatment guidelines for several cardiovascular diseases.
Another comprehensive article about circulation is located online via Circulation.
Also, if you are interested in different therapies and medications used to improve circulation, I recommend visiting another reference from Circulation. It contains a lot of information about the different medications used, as well as the side effects and recommendations.
A study was conducted in 2007 in regards to the effects of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels on the heart, and how they are linked with heart failure.
It is common for patients to be re-admitted after having heart failure, so close supervision by a healthcare provider is extremely important. In May of 2010, The Journal of the American Medical Association released a study on the outcome of the patients who suffered from heart failure.
The Journal of the American College of Cardiology released a detail document that describes the management of atrial fibrillation (AF).
Based on the information contained within the document, it is important to monitor the heart rate at rest, and control it by using pharmacological agents such as beta blockers, digoxin or nondihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist. In patients who only experience AF while being active, the heart rate should be measured during exercise. If the heart rate cannot be controlled at rest, oral amiodarone may be used. If the heart rate still cannot be controlled, a catheter-directed ablation of the atrioventicular node made be considered. This is only to be used as a last resort, and as always, the type of medication, and the dosage should be approved by the physician.
The American Family Physician released an article about the diagnosis and treatment of atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Not only does it hinder the function of the heart, but increased the risk of stroke. The article contains different methods of preventing and controlling atrial fibrillation.
The American College of Chest Physicians released a paper in 2018 regarding Atrial Fibrillation.
Coronary Artery Disease
Coronary Artery Disease is the number one cause of mortality in the US. The condition can be managed by making lifestyle changes, blood pressure control, and medications such as aspirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta blockers. A comprehensive article can be obtained from American Family Physician.
Coronary Heart Disease
There’s a link between coronary heart disease and depression. The American Heart Association released a paper discussing the correlation between the two. You can find information about diagnoses, treatments and recommendations within.
Diet Recommendations for Cardiovascular Disease
Low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets don’t seem to have a significant effect on cardiovascular disease, although they do help with weight loss. Mediterranean diets, however, have been proven to help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
The two most common complications in diabetes are diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HSS). More than 500,000 hospital days are due to DKA, and it costs about $2.4 billion every year. Comprehensive information about the diagnosis of these conditions, as well as their treatments can be accessed from Diabetes Care.
Another paper was released in 2001 discussing the management of DKA. You may read it from the Emergency Medical Journal.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Exacerbations of COPD are the reason for the high mortality rate of the disease. The first step in the management of the condition is increasing the dosage of the short-acting bronchodilators that are inhaled. The combination of ipratropium and albuterol help to prevent dyspnea. Oral corticosteroids are also beneficial, and the use of antibiotics reduces mortality rates and helps with treatment. A detail document regarding the condition, as well as treatment options, can be found at American Family Physician.
Another paper, published November 2007, in Annals of Internal Medicine, is also worth reading for more information.
Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Caused by Staphylococcus aureus
Skin and soft tissue infections are the most common manifestation of the community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Lesions are to be drained as much as possible. Some patients may be treated with clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracyclines, however there is not enough evidence to support the efficacy of these treatments. Patients with serious infections should be treated with vancomycin. For more information about the condition and other treatment options, visit Clinical Infectious Diseases.
There is an easy-to-follow guide, including a flowchart, on the condition, available from the Center for Disease Control (CDC).
Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease
The National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative released an article about the treatment and prevention of anemia in chronic kidney disease. The article includes recommendation of Hemoglobin count targets, and contains a plethora of information on treatments, as well as research results.
The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network released a guideline on the management of both upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. This is a comprehensive document that contains valuable information about the condition, and its management.
A document, published in September 2010, discusses specifically red cell transfusion, as a technique to manage upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
A document detailing treatment of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage with proton pump inhibitors can be found in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.
The conditions listed above are some of the most common hospital diagnoses and their management. The links will lead you to comprehensive descriptions of each condition, as well as treatment and management options. As always, treatments should be completed under the supervision of your healthcare provider.